Umunsi wo kubeshya ukomoka he? Ni tariki ya mbere Mata

Umunsi wo kubeshya ntabwo ari umunsi wemerwa n’igihugu runaka ahubwo ni umunsi wamamaye mu bihugu byinshi ku Isi, kandi ukaba wizihizwa buri tariki ya mbere Mata, aho usanga abantu batera urwenya kandi bagahimba ibinyoma.

Ku itariki ya mbere Mata buri mwaka ku isi abantu benshi bawizihiza nk’umunsi wo kubeshya, ndetse ugahabwa agaciro mu bice binyuranye byo ku isi no mu Rwanda harimo, aho usanga abantu babeshyanya ibintu bitandukanye ndetse bishobora kuvamo ingaruka zinyuranye, haba ku buzima ndetse no ku mibanire.

Uyu munsi rero n’Abanyarwanda bamwe na bamwe bakaba bawizihiza, babeshya mu buryo butandukanye. Nta wuzi aho Abanyarwanda babikuye cyangwa igihe batangiriye kubikora, ariko hari abavuga ko bawukuye ku bakoloni kuko uyu munsi wageze mu bihugu by’i Burayi kera.

Inkomoko y’umunsi wo kubeshya ntisobanutse neza gusa hari abavuga ko ushobora kuba ukomoka ku munsi Abaromani bakoreragaho ibirori bya Hilaria, byabaga ku itariki ya 25 Werurwe, naho mu gihe cya Moyen age, umunsi w’ibinyoma wabaga ku itariki ya 28 Ukuboza.

Imbuga zinyuranye zivuga byinshi kuri uyu munsi, zivuga ko uyu munsi watangiye bwa mbere mu gihugu cy’Ubufaransa, nyuma y’uko umwami Charles IX ategetse ko bahindura karindari (Gregorian calendar) mu mwaka w’1582.

Ibi byahindutse, igihe umwaka watangiraga hagati y’itariki ya 25 Werurwe n’iya mbere Mata. Abatarishimiye iryo hinduka, batumiraga abantu mu birori babaga bateguye, bakarya, bakanywa, bakabyina, bamwe bakabeshya bagenzi babo mu rwego rwo gutebya.

Uwo muco waje kumenyekana ku izina rya ” Le Poisson d’Avril” mu rurimi rw’igifaransa bishatse kuvuga “ifi yo muri Mata”. Izina Poisson d’Avril ryakomotse ku kuba abantu barabaga bavuye mu gisibo kibanziriza Pasika aho kurya inyama biba bidakunze kugaragara noneho kuri uyu munsi abantu bahanaga impano z’ibyo kurya byiganjemo amafi.

Uyu munsi wo kubeshya umaze kuza abenshi bahanaga amafi y’ibishushanyo (faux poissons).

Mu bwongereza naho uyu munsi urizihizwa aho uzwi ku izina rya “April’s fool day” muri Ecosse barawihiza cyane kurusha no mu Bufaransa kuko bageza no kuya 2 Mata bakibeshyanya, ukaba ari imwe mu minsi bakunda cyane muri icyo gihugu.

Muri Ecosse uyu munsi, bo, bawise “hunting the gowk (cuckoo).” Naho ku ya 2 Mata bawita “behind”, aho abantu bagaruka kubyaraye bibaye ku itariki ya mbere.

Mu gihugu cya Espagne ho bawugira kuwa 28 Ukuboza, bakawita “día de los santos inocentes” naho mu Buhinde ho bawizihiza ku ya 31 werurwe.

Muri ibyo bihugu ariko bamenyereye iby’uyu munsi ku buryo badahahamurwa n’ibinyoma bikakaye, aho amwe mu maradio, televiziyo n’imbuga za internet bidatinya gusohora ikinyoma kabone n’iyo haba ari mu makuru ubusanzwe atarangwamo impuha cyangwa gutera urwenya.

Infoplease yo yanditse ko mu 1582, Papa Gregory XIII yategetse ishyirwaho rya Kalendari nshya yamwitiriwe isimbura iya Julien.

Iyi kalendari ntiyishimiwe na bose mu gihe abandi batabimenye. Ibi byatumye abakomeje kuguma ku ya mbere bajya babeshywa ibintu bimwe na bimwe n’abakurikije inshya. Ibi rero byo kubeshya byakwirakwiye i Burayi bwose.

Ibindi bisobanuro ku mvano y’umunsi wo kubeshya ni ibivugwa kuba byaratewe na Joseph Boskin, umwarimu w’amateka muri Kaminuza ya Boston.

Yasobanuye ko uyu muco w’ibinyoma watangiye mu gihe cy’ubwami bwa Constantine, ubwo itsinda ry’abanyarwenya n’ababeshyi ryabwiraga uyu mwami w’abami b’Abaromani ko bashobora gukora akazi neza baramutse bayoboye ubwo bwami. Constantine, byaramushimishije maze yemerera umunyarwenya witwa Kugel kuba umwami umunsi umwe gusa.

Kugel yaciye iteka ryo gusetsa kuri uwo munsi, maze uwo muco uhita ugirwa ngarukamwaka.

Umunsi wo kubeshya wakwirakwiye cyane mu bihugu by’I Burayi cyane. Byakorwaga abantu bohererezanya ibinyoma, bagashaka ikintu kitabaho, bakabeshya mu rwenya ndetse bagatuma abandi bantu bizera ibintu bisekeje.

Ibi rero byaje kuba akamenyero uko umwaka utashye, ari na ho uyu munsi waje gufatwa nk’umunsi wo kubeshya, biza kugenda bikwirakwira mu bihugu bitandukanye hirya no hino ku Isi nk’u Buholandi, Suede, Portugal, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika n’ahandi hirya no hino ku isi harimo n’u Rwanda.

Nubwo abakristo bafite itegeko ry’Imana ribabuza kubeshya, bamwe muri bo usanga bitababuza kwizihiza uyu munsi, babeshya bakanabeshyera abandi.

N’ubwo mu Rwanda bitajyanye n’umuco, uyu munsi umaze kumenyerwa ndetse benshi bawizihiza babeshyanya, aho ndetse no mu bitangazamakuru uyu muco wamaze kuhagera, dore ko hari amakuru amwe atangazwa nyuma bakaza kuvuga ko byari ibinyoma bijyanye n’uyu munsi.

 

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