Intambara y’ubutasi bukoresha ”Pegasus” u Rwanda ruvugwamo yaje ite? Ni gute wamenya ko wumvirizwa hakoreshejwe Pegasus? ikora ite?

Mu minsi ishize, hakwirakwiye inkuru ya program yitwa ‘’Pegasus’’ yakozwe na sosiyete y’abanya Israel yitwa NSO Group ku bigo bishinzwe gushyira mu bikorwa amategeko ndetse ikanakoreshwa mu kuneka ku bigo bibishinzwe ndetse ubu birazwi ko iyi porogramu yifashishwa mu kuneka bamwe mu baturage b’ibihugu bitandukanye hano ku isi mu buryo bw’ibanga.

Nkuko ikinyamakuru Forbes kibitangaza, abantu bagera ku bihumbi 50 ku isi bumvirijwe hakoreshejwe iyi Pegasus, Urebye uyu mubare si munini ariko mu byukuri iyo bari kukuneka bakoresheje Pegasus telephone yawe baba bayifite yose, ibyo uvugiraho, abo mukunda kuvugana,amafoto, videwo, camera abo mwandikirana n’ibindi byose nawe uzi ukorera kuri telephone yawe kandi bigakorwa mu buryo bw’ibanga ku buryo nawe nyirayo utanakeka ko hari undi muntu ukoresha fone yawe.

Nyishi muri Antivirus tumenyereye cyane gukoresha ntacyo zakora kuri iri koranabuhanga ry’abanya Israel kuko usibye nizo antivirus na kompanyi zakoze iyo telephone ntizamenya ko biri kubaho yemwe n’imirongo y’itumanaho ukoresha ntiyabasha kubimenya.

Ikigo gishinzwe iyubahiriza ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu ku isi cyagerageje gukora indi progaramu ishobora kugufasha kumenya niba koko waba waraguye mu gatego ko kumvirizwa hakoreshejwe iyi Pegasus. Iyo porogaramu yitwa MVT (Mobile Verification Toolkit) iyi ukaba wayisanga kuri GitHub.

Iyi MVT ikora ku bikoresho koranabuhanga bikoresha sisitemu (system) ya Android na IOS, gusa, nta gisubizo cyagutse cy’uko iyi MVT wayishyira (Install) muri telephone cyangwa mudasobwa yawe kuko bisaba ko uyihuza n’ibindi bikoresho koranabuhanga ibintu byashoboka gusa kuri mudasobwa zikoresha sisitemu ya Linux cyangwa macOS.

MVT iyo yashizwe mu gikoresho cyawe (Fone cyangwa Mudasobwa), ireba amakuru yose ari mo (copy, scan…) ikareba niba yaba yaratezwemo Pegasus ubundi igaha nyirayo ubutumwa niba telefone ye yumvirizwa n’undi muntu utari we. Biroroshye cyane kumenya niba wumvirizwa ukoresheje MVT kuri telefone za iphone zikoresha ios kurusha izikoresha Android kuko ios zibika amakuru igihe kirekire kurusha Android.

Niba uri umuturage usanzwe ntugire ikibazo ko nawe baba bagukurikirana cyangwa se bakumviriza bifashishije iyi progaramu ‘’Pegasus’’ kuko irahenze cyane kandi ntabwo batakaza amafaranga akayabo bakurikirana umuntu udafite kinini avuze mu gihugu.

Kenshi abantu bumvirizwa cyane ni abanya politiki, abacuruzi bakomeye mu gihugu, abanyamakuru bitewe n’ikinyamakuru bakorera n’inkuru batangaza.

Perezida w’ubufaransa ku rutonde rw’abantu bumvirijwe

Perezida w’Ubufaransa Emmanuel Macron ni umwe mu bategetsi benshi bo ku isi byemezwa ko bagambiriwe mu butasi bwo kwinjira muri telefone zabo hakoreshejwe ‘software’ ya Pegasus, nkuko amakuru abivuga.
NSO ivuga ko iperereza ry’ibanze ryatumye hatangazwa aya makuru – ryakozwe n’umuryango utegamiye kuri leta wo mu Bufaransa uzwi nka Forbidden Stories hamwe n’umuryango uharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu Amnesty International – ryari “ryuzuye ibivugwa bitari ukuri kandi bidafitiwe gihamya”.

Aya makuru yo kugambirira kuneka Macron akubiye mu ruhererekane rw’inkuru ziri gutangazwa zivuga ko abantu bakomeye babarirwa mu bihumbi bagambiriwe gukorwaho ubutasi hifashishijwe iyo ‘software’.
Izindi nimero zigaragara kuri urwo rutonde zivugwa ko zirimo nka nimero ya Perezida wa Iraq Baram Salih na nimero ya Perezida w’Afurika y’epfo Cyril Ramaphosa, ndetse na ba Minisitiri w’intebe wa Pakistan, uwa Misiri n’uwa Maroc, ndetse na nimero y’Umwami wa Maroc.

Abategetsi muri za leta n’abanyapolitiki bose hamwe barenga 600 bo mu bihugu 34, bari kuri uru rutonde.

Mu mwaka wa 2013, byamenyekanye ko ikigo NSA cy’ubutasi cy’Amerika bishoboka ko cyarimo cyumviriza itumanaho ry’abategetsi batandukanye bo ku isi – harimo na telefone y’umukuru w’Ubudage Angela Merkel, inshuti y’Amerika, biteza ikimwaro ndetse urebye binashyira igihu mu mubano wa dipolomasi w’ibihugu byombi.

Ikintu cy’ingenzi cyane muri aya makuru mashya, ni uko gushobora gukora ubutasi ku bategetsi bw’ibihugu ubu bishobora kuba byakorwamo ubucuruzi kandi bigashobora kugera kuri za leta nyinshi kurushaho.

Ntibizwi umubare w’abari kuri urwo rutonde bibasiwe bya nyabyo, ariko no kuba gusa bishoboka ko byakorwa bizatuma kompanyi NSO Group yotswa igitutu – ndetse habeho no kotsa igitutu za leta zaba zaragambiriye abandi bategetsi.

Bisaba amafaranga angana iki kugira ngo ukoreshe iyi Pegasus?

Ubutasi kuri telephone ngendanwa bwongeye kuvugwa muri iyi minsi ko bukorwa na za leta zimwe na zimwe, igiciro cyabwo gishobora kugera kuri miliyoni 1$ kugira ngo ikoreshwe muri telephone 10 gusa, nk’uko bivugwa n’ikinyamakuru New York Times.

Mu 2016 New York Times yatangaje ko inyandiko yakuye ku bakiriya ba Pegasus zerekana ibiciro bitandukanye iyo kompanyi igurishaho iyi ‘spyware’ yayo.

New York Times ivuga ko izo nyandiko zirimo emails za NSO Group, amasezerano, n’inyandiko zigamije ubucuruzi zerekana ko hari leta nyinshi icyo gihe zifuje gukoresha iri koranabuhanga mu butasi.

Igiciro icyo gihe cyari $500,000 (asaga 500,000,000 Frw) ya ‘installation’ gusa.
Kuri ayo, za leta zongeraho $650,000 yo kuyikoresha mu gihe iri gukora muri telephone 10 za Android cyangwa 10 za iPhone, $500,000 kuri telephone eshanu za BlackBerry, nk’uko New York Times ibivuga.

Ubu ntihazwi neza uko ibiciro by’iki gihe byifashe mu gukoresha iri koranabuhanga mu butasi.

Icyo gihe gukurikirana abantu 100 biyongera kuri abo 10 byishyurwagaho $800,000, abandi 50 bakishyurwaho $500,000, abandi 20 bakishyurwaho $250,000 naho 10 bakishyurwaho $150,000 nk’uko inyandiko y’ubucuruzi ya NSO Group yabyerekanaga.
Kuri ibyo, hakiyongeraho ikiguzi cyishyurwa buri mwaka cya ‘system maintenance’ kingana na 17% y’igiciro cyose hamwe cyishuwe.

Ese koko hari bamwe mu banyarwanda bumvirijwe hakoreshejwe iyi Pegasus?

Tariki ya 20 Nyakanga 2021 ikinyamakuru BBC cyatangaje inkuru yavuguruwe ku itariki ya 21 uku kwezi ivuga ko Umukobwa wa Paul Rusesabagina ukurikiranyweho ibyaha bya Genocide yakorewe abatutsi mu w’i1994 n’ibindi byaha byo gushinga imitwe y’iterabwoba.

Ikigo Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) kivuga ko mu gihe kigera ku mezi atandatu kugera tariki 03 z’uku kwezi kwa karindwi, telephone ya Carine Kanimba yarimo Pegasus.

Carine Kanimba, umukobwa wa Paul Rusesabagina ufungiye mu Rwanda, yakoreshejweho ‘software’ ya Pegasus mu gukora ubutasi kubera umuhate we mu gushaka uko se yarekurwa, nk’uko abivuga.

OCCRP ivuga ko yafashijwe na ‘Security Lab’ ya Amnesty International gukora icukumbura ikabona ko telephone ya Kanimba yabashijwe kwinjizwamo neza Pegasus inshuro nyinshi.

Ku rutonde rw’abayikoreshejweho cyangwa abageragejwe kuyikoreshwaho mu Rwanda OCCRP ivuga ko barimo:
Umunyamategeko Gatera Gashabana, Cassien Ntamuhanga (bivugwa ko yaburiwe irengero muri Mozambique), abanyamakuru Robert Mugabe na Eric Bagiruwubusa na bamwe mu banyapolitiki batavugarumwe n’ubutegetsi bahungiye mu mahanga.
Abanyamakuru babashije kubona nimero zibarirwa muri za mirongo z’Abanyarwanda cyangwa abandi bantu ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bushobora gukurikirana mu bihugu bituranyi, nk’uko OCCRP ibivuga.

Iki kigo kivuga ko muri abo harimo abanyamakuru, impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira, n’abanyapolitiki bo hejuru cyangwa abakuru mu ngabo mu bihugu bituranye n’u Rwanda.

Bamwe muri abo ni abo muri Uganda, u Burundi na Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo. Ibihugu mu gihe gishize – cyangwa n’ubu, byagize umubano urimo ibibazo n’u Rwanda.

Leta y’u Rwanda ibivugaho iki?

Perezida Paul Kagame avuga ko ikoranabuhanga ryo gukora ubutasi kuri telephone z’abantu ku giti cyabo u Rwanda rutarikoresha kuko rihenze cyane, ahakana ko ubutegetsi burikoresha ku banyarwanda.

Mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru cyo ku wa 8 Ugushyingo 2019, Perezida Paul Kagame yavuze ko ibihugu ku isi bigira ubutasi kandi bikurikirana ibyo abantu bavugira kuri telephone zabo, nubwo ngo bifite amategeko abigenga.
Ati: “Kuri twe kumenya abanzi bacu, ibyo bakora aho bari hose ni ikintu twakomeje kugerageza gukora kuko biri mu burenganzira bwacu kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byose ku isi”.

Ati: “Ariko iyaba nanjye ahubwo nari mfite iryo koranabuhanga, ariko nanumvise ko rihenze cyane uko nabisomye. Njye nzi uko nkoresha neza amafaranga yanjye, ntabwo nakoresha amafaranga menshi gutyo ku muntu numvise bavuga uba mu Bwongereza twarikoreshejeho. Ntabwo nakoresha ayo mafaranga yose ku muntu uri iyo udafite icyo antwaye, umuntu undwanyiriza mu Bwongereza!? Hoya ahubwo mpangayikishijwe na bariya binjirira mu Kinigi bakica abantu…”.

Kompanyi NSO Group ibivugaho iki?

Pegasus ivugwaho gukoreshwa mu butasi bwo kwinjira muri telefone z’abantu b’inzirakarengane, ivuga ko kuyibishyiraho ari nko “kunenga uruganda rukora imodoka mu gihe umushoferi wasinze ayikoresheje impanuka”.

Iyi kompanyi ivuga ko ubu buryo buhabwa gusa igisirikare, inzego z’umutekano zishinzwe iyubahirizwa ry’amategeko ndetse n’inzego z’ubutasi, zizwiho kubahiriza neza uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Ariko itsinda ry’ibitangazamakuru bimwe bikomeye, birangajwe imbere n’umuryango utegamiye kuri leta wa Forbidden Stories wo mu Bufaransa, bimaze gutangaza inkuru zibarirwa muri za mirongo kuri urwo rutonde rwa nimero.

NSO Group yavuze ko yabwiwe ko urwo rutonde rwagezweho hinjiwe mu bubiko (servers) bwayo bwo muri Cyprus (Chypre).

Ariko umugabo uvugira iyi kompanyi yabwiye BBC ati: “Mbere na mbere, nta bubiko dufite muri Cyprus. Kandi icya kabiri, nta makuru [data] n’amwe dufite y’abakiliya bacu. Ikirenze kuri ibyo, abakiliya bacu nta ho bahuriye, buri mukiliya atandukanye n’undi. Rero urutonde nk’uru nta hantu na hamwe rukwiye kuba ruri”.

Kandi umubare wa nimero bivugwa ko zari zigambiriwe gukorwaho ubutasi ngo nta ho uhuriye n’uburyo Pegasus ikoramo.

Uwo muvugizi wayo ati: “Ni umubare urimo ubusazi. Abakiliya bacu muri rusange bagira abo bagambiriye 100 ku mwaka.

Kuva kompanyi yatangira [mu 2010], ntabwo twagize abagambiriwe 50,000 bose hamwe”.

Nubwo Pegasus ariyo imaze iminsi ivugwa cyane mu itangazamakuru, nyinshi muri porogaramu zifashishwa n’abatasi zirahari nyinshi kandi zirakora mu ibanga rikomeye cyane.

Ibyo Pegusus yakora

Yanditswe na NIYOYITA Jean d’Amour

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