Byinshi utari uzi kuri Noheli ibura iminsi mike ngo yizihizwe

Ijambo Noheli rikomoka ku ijambo ry’Igifaransa “Noël”, naryo ryakomotse mu Kilatini “Natalis” bivuze “amavuka”. Mu Cyongereza Noheli ikaba ni “Christmas”. 

Chrissmass birimo amagambo abiri  “Christ” na “Mass”, aho rikomoka ku cyongereza cya kera “Christemass” nabyo biva ku cya kera cyane “Cristes mæsse” ryakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu 1038. Naryo rikaba rikomoka mu Kigereki n’Ikilatini, aho “Cristes” bikomoka ku Kigereki “Christos” na”mæsse” rikava ku Kilatini “missa”

Noheli kubakirisitu n’umunsi w’ikiruhuko n’uburyo bw’ubucuruzi ku Isi yose. Mu binyagihumbi bibiri bishize , abantu bose kw’Isi bafashe umunsi wa Noheli nk’umunsi  nk’umuco  ubaho mu buryo bw’iyobokamana ndetse nomu myemerere isanzwe. Abakirisitu bizihiza umunsi wa Noheli mu gihe baba bibuka umunsi Yesu/Yezu w’Inazareti yavukiyeho umwigisha w’ijambo ry’Imana. Uyu munsi urangwa no gutanga impano , imitako  y’ibiti ahantu hose, Kujya gusenga, gusangira amafunguro ku nshuti n’abavandimwe bategereje ko umukiza abavukira. Kuya 25 ukuboza niho bizihiza umunsi mukuru wa Noheli.

Mbere ya Yesu/Yesu abanyaburayi bizihizaga umunsi umunsi w’urumuri no Kuvuka mu bihe  by’itumba.abantu benshi  bishimiraga  iri tumba ryabaga rimwe mu mwaka, igihe itumba ryabaga rigiye kurangir , abantu barategerezaga igihe cy’itumba kikarangira bareba ubundi izuba rikarasa bareba.

Muri Scandinavia, bizihizaga Noheli nukuga Yule mu kirimi cyo muri Scandinavia guhera kuya 21 Ukuboza ubwo itumba ryabaga ririmbanyije  maze bakageza muri Mutaramathe . Aha babaga bategereje ko igihe cy’izuba kigera , iki gihe Abagabo n’abasore bajyaga gushaka amashami y’ibiti maze bakayajyana mungo zabo. Abantu bacanaga aya mashami mu gihe cy’iminsi 12. Abanya-Scandinavia bahitaga baza muruhame kwerekana amatungo nk’ibimasa yavutse uwo munsi.

Impera z’Ukuboza yari iminsi yo kunezerwa I burayi hose, muri icyo gihe , baryaga inyama ndetsebakanenga inzoga nyinshi zo kunwa bishimira ko basoje umwaka.

Nubwo bwose abantu benshi bizihiza umunsi w’amavuko wa Yezu ku italiki 25 ukuboza,abahanga bagaragaza ko Yesu atavutse kuri iyi tariki kubera ko umunsi wa Noheli ngo waba waremejwe kugira ngo uhurirane n’imboneko z’ukwezi kwa mbere kw’itumba(winter solstice) kuko abaromani bawizihizaga ku itariki 25 Ukuboza buri mwaka nkuko ikinyamakuru cyandika amateka the history.com kibitangaza.

Gusa nubwo ari umunsi witabwaho cyane n’abakristo, bamwe mu batizera Yesu benshi bawizihiza nk’umunsi wo gusabana n’imiryango, no kuruhuka.

Ese Noheli yaje kwemezwa kuya 25 ukuboza gute?

Mu butariyani i Rome, ho ntabwo bitaga ku bihe by’itumba ahubwo bo bizihizaga ikigirwamana cy’ubuhinzi. Ibi byabaga mu ntangiriro z’itumba bagakomeza ukwezi k’Ukuboza kukarangira,nabo iki gihe barangwaga no gusangira ibiribwa n’ibinyobwa.

Muri uko kwezi kose, Abacakara babaga babaye nk’abami kuko nta mirimo yakorwaga, amaduka n’amashuri byabaga bifunze kugirango baruhuke maze bishimire hamwe.

Mu myaka yak era ntabwo Noheli yizihizwaga cyane ahubwo Pasika  niyo yizihizwaga ku buryo bukomeye ndeyse yari n’ikiruhuko gikomeye. Mu kinyejana cya kane nibwo amadini yemeje ko umunsi w’ivuka  rya Yesu/Yezu waba ikiruhuko, gusa ariko muri Bibiliya ntihagaragaramo itariki nyayo  yavukiyeho.

Iulius I.jpg

Papa Julius  wa mbere niwe wahisemo itariki ya 25 z’Ukuboza. Bose bemeye iyi tariki yahiswemo n’amadini kugirango babungabunge umuco wari warahozeho nkuko twabibonye bitaga Saturnalia festival.  Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya gatandatu nibwo iyi tariki yakoreshejwe mu misiri ahagana mu mwaka wa 432 ndetse no mu Bwongereza. Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya munane nibwo iyi tariki ya 25 yo kwizihiza Noheli yakwirakwijwe hose muri Scandinavia. Uyu munsi, mu Bugereki no mu Burusiya mu idini rya Orthodox,  Noheli yizihizwa iminsi 13 nyuma yiya 25 Ukuboza.

Kugirango bahuze Noheli na wa muco wo hambere , Abayobozi b’amadini bongereye amahirwe  yo kugirango ya Noheli bizihizaga mu gihe cy’itumba  izisanishe niyo bari bashyizeho yagombaga kujya iba kuya 25 Ukuboza ariko bo bishyiriraho uburyo igomba kwizihizwa.

Icyo abahanga bavuga kuri iyi tariki.

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton wagerageje gusobanura ko iyo tariki yafashwe kugirango ihurirane n’imboneko y’ukwezi kubanziriza itumba kandi mu gihe cya kera yarizihizwaga ku itariki 25 Ukuboza.

Mu 1743, Umudage Paul Ernst Jablonski yagerageje gusobanura ko Noheli yashyizwe kuri 25 Ukuboza kugirango ihurirane n’umunsi wa kiromani wo kwizihiza izuba wa Dies Natalis Solis Invicti.

Ibi bigatuma we anavuga ko kubera iyo mpamvu Noheli wari umunsi wa gipagani. Nk’uko amwe mu matorero ya Giprotestanti na nubu akibifata.

Mu 1889, Louis Duchesne yavuze ko Noheli yaba yarabariranyijwe nk’amezi icyenda (mbere yo kuvuka) Uhereye kuri 25 z’ukwa gatatu ukaba ariwo munsi bizihizaho isamwa rya Yezu, cyane cyane Kiliziya Gatolika).

Kuri kalendari y’abaroma, 25 Werurwe wari umunsi w’ukwezi kuzuye k’ Umuhindo (aha birumvikana ko ibi bihe bidahuye n’ibyo mu Rwanda).

Nubwo bigoye gusobanura amateka yose, ikigaragara neza ni uko Noheli yizihijwe bwa mbere nk’umunsi w’ivuka rya Yezu kuri 25 Ukuboza umwaka wa 354.

Ibi bisobanurwa neza mu nyandiko yiswe (Chronography of 354), ikaba ari imwe mu nyandiko zarokotse zandikiwe i Roma muri 354 nyuma ya Yezu.

Noheli ni umwe mu minsi yizihizwa cyane ku isi, ariko si ko byahoze. Nyuma y’imyivumbagatanyo y’abaporotesitanti mu myaka ya za 1500, amwe mu matorero ya giprotesitanti yanze kujya yizihiza Noheli, akavuga ko ari ibisigarizwa by’ibyarangaga ubupapa.

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira ariko cyane cyane nk’uko bigaragara ubu, Noheli isigaye yizihizwa hafi n’abantu bose b’amadini anyuranye, cyane cyane ko no hanze y’urusengero ari umunsi wafashwe nk’ikiruhuko gikomeye cyane kurusha ibindi mu mwaka.

Mu bihugu bindi bigira umubare muto w’abakirisitu, naho ngo ntibibuza ko uyu munsi wa Noheli uba ari konji. Igihugu nka Korea, ahagaragara umubare muke w’Abakristu, ngo usanga bizihiza Noheli ku buryo budasanzwe, kuko mu gihugu hose uhasanga imitako y’uyu munsi.

Ibihugu bitizihiza umunsi wa Noheli ni nk’igihugu cy’Ubushinwa (havuyemo imijyi nka Hong Kong na Macao.),Ubuyapani,Arabiya Sawudite,Aligeriya,Tayillande,Nepali,Irani,Turikiya na Koreya ya Ruguru.

 

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